Understanding Global Warming from Vedic Perspective



Prof. Ravi Prakash Arya1 & Surya Prakash Kaapoor2


Global warming is one of the burning issues of the modern era. Although it has always been an issue of discussion generally assigned to solar radiation, but its pace has increased in the last century. So, the scientists are assigning this factor to the burning of fossil fuels. Accordingly, the increase in population is seen as the direct impact on the increase of fossil fuels burned. But there is another perspective which assigns this factor to the geothermal energy also. This is Vedic perspective. In this paper the Vedic perspective has been discussed in detail to understand the phenomenon of Global warming or what is known as ‘greenhouse effect’.

Key words: Global warming, greenhouse effect, geothermal energy, solar radiation.

Global warming: Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of earth‘s near-surface air and oceans.

Global Surface temperature: Geothermal energy in conjuction with solar energy is repsonsible for 15 degree centigrade global surface temperature.



Warming on the earth: Modern view  

According to a commonly accepted view of the Modern Meteorologists, warmth for the earth is provided primarily by the sun’s energy. At an average distance from the sun of nearly 150 million kilometers (km) or 93 million miles (mi), the earth intercepts only a very small fraction of the sun’s total energy output. However, it is this radiant energy (or radiation) that drives the atmosphere into the patterns of everyday wind and weather and allows the earth to maintain an average global surface temperature of about 150 C (590F). During last 150 years of Industrial Revolution the temp. of crust of the earth and that of troposphere has risen from 15 degrees Celsius to 15.8 degrees Celsius. 

Warming on the earth: Vedic View 

While studying the treasure of the Vedic wisdom, we come to know that it is not only the sun which is the sole factor contributing to the warmth of the earth in the solar system, but the geothermal energy of the earth is also contributing to the warmth on it. According to the Vedas, Agni has its abode in the earth. Accordding to the first mantra of the Brahmchari Sūkta of the Atharvaveda (1.5.1) envisaged by Brahma- 

ब्रह्मचारीर्श्चरति रोदसी उभे तस्मिन् देवाः संमनसो भवन्ति।

स दाधार पृथिवीं दिवं च स आचार्यं तपसा पिपर्ति॥ अथर्ववेद, 1.5.1

brahmachārīrścharati rodasī ubhe tasmin devāḥ saṁmanaso bhavanti,

sa dādhāra pṛthivīṁ divaṁ cha sa āchāryaṁ tapasā piparti.

(ब्रह्मचारी) A Vedic Scholar (चरति) continuously focuses (रोदसी) on the Sun and the earth. (देवाः) The parents and teachers (भवन्ति) hold (संमनसो) similar opinion (तस्मिन्) about him. (That is they are uneqvivocable about his mission). (सः) He (दाधार) makes judicious use of (दिवम्) solar insolation and (पृथिवीम्) geothermal energy. (सः) He (पिपर्ति) makes the teachings of (आचार्यम्) his teacher successful (तपसा) with his tapas i.e. new applications of solar and Geothermal energies.

At another place the Atharvaveda (1.1.10) clearly points out to two sources of energy beneficial to the humanity. The mantra reads as under:

अर्वागन्यः परो अन्यो दिवस्पृष्ठाद् गुहा निधी निहितौ ब्राह्मणस्य।

तौ रक्षति तपसा ब्रह्मचारी तत् केवलं कृणुते ब्रह्म विद्वान्॥ अथर्ववेद, 1.1.10

arvāganyaḥ paro anyo divaspṛṣṭhād guhā nidhī nihitau brāhmaṇasya,

tau rakṣati tapasā brahmachārī tat kevalaṁ kṛṇute brahma vidvān.

              [Meaning] (निधी) Of the two types of energies (निहितौ) located (गुहा) in the cave (ब्राह्मणस्य) of universe, (अन्यः) one (अर्वाग्) is very near in the core of earth and (अन्यः) another comes (परः) far away (दिवः पृष्ठाद्) from the photosphere of the sun. (केवलम्) Only (ब्रह्मचारी) a Vedic scholar (रक्षति) makes a good use of (तौ) these two forms of energy (तपसा) with his knowledge. (तत्) This knowledge (कृणुते) makes him meaningful (ब्रह्म विद्वान्) scholar excelling in the knowledge of solar system.

In the next mantra (AV. 1.1.11), it is clearly stated that (अग्नी) two sources of Heat Energy (समेतः) are available (इमे) in both of the sun and earth (नभसी अन्तरा) that are mutually bound to each other by the force of attraction. (अन्यः) One (अन्यः) is very near (under our feet) and (अन्यः) another (इतः पृथिव्याः) is far way from this earth (in the sun). (रश्मयः) The heat energy emanating (तयोः) from both of these two sources (अधिश्रयन्ते) gets stored in the atmosphere of our planet. (That is to say that crust of earth, sea surface and winds are jointly heated by the solar insolation and geothermal energy. In other words, the combined effect of both types of energy is responsible for blowing winds, evaporation of waters and from oceans and other water bodies and over all heat content of the earth). (ब्रह्मचारी) The Brahmachari (Vedic Scholar) (आतिष्ठति) harness (तान्) both the energies (तपसा) with his technical knowledge for the benefit of humankind. The mantra reads as follows:

अर्वागन्यः इतो अन्यः पृथिव्याः अग्नी समेतो नभसी अन्तरेमे।

तयोः श्रयन्ते रश्मयोधि दृ़ढास्तानातिष्ठति तपसा ब्रह्मचारी॥

arvāganyaḥ ito anyaḥ pṛthivyāḥ agnī sameto nabhasī antareme,

tayoḥ śrayante raśmayo∙dhi dṛḍhāstānātiṣṭhati tapasā brahmachārī.

In addition to the above mantras of the Atharvaveda, the Rigveda (1.1.1-2) also points out to the fact that geothermal energy is the source of creation on the earth. It was harnessed by the previous seers and new seers are also harnessing it. This fullfills the energy needs of the scholars on this planet.

अग्निमीळे पुरोहितं यज्ञस्य देवं ऋत्विजम्। होतारं रत्नधातमम्॥

agnimīḽe purohitaṁ yajñasya devaṁ ṛtvijam, hotāraṁ ratnadhātamam.


(ई॒ळे) Let me harness (अग्निम्) the geothermal energy of the earth (पुरोहितम्) that which is the forerunner of (यज्ञस्य) creation on the earth (Note: if a planet is devoid of her geothermal energy she would become a barren planet), (देवम्) that which is highly effulgent, (ऋत्विजम्)  that which create things according to their need and time, (होतारम्) that which provides several facilities worth living on the earth and that which (रत्नधातमम्) possesses precious gems available on the earth.

अग्नि पूर्वेभिः ऋषिभिरीड्य नूतनैरूत। स देवां इह वक्षति॥

agni pūrvebhiḥ ṛṣibhirīḍya nūtanairūta, sa devāṁ iha vakṣati.

(अग्निः) Geothermal energy located in the centre of the earth (ईड्यः) is worthy to be harnessed by both (पूर्वेभिः) ancient (उत) and (नूतनैः) modern (ऋषिभिः) seers/visionary persons. (सः) He (आ वक्षति) sends (देवान्) geothermal radiation (इह) here (on the surface of the earth).

From the aforementioned, it is very clear, according to the Vedas geothermal energy alongwith solar insolation is the cause of GW. In other words we can say that the GW is the result of the permutations and combinations of geothermal energy and solar energy on the earth in addition to other factors. 

Sources of Geothermal Energy

The Sea spreading centre, hotwater springs and volcanic activities on the lithosphere and hydrosphere of the earth contribute to the geothermal energy of the earth.

Volcanic activities on the hydrosphere of the earth: The most productive volcanic systems on Earth are hidden under water at an average depth of 8000 feet. Beneath the oceans a global system of mid-ocean ridges produces an estimated 75% of the annual output of magma. An estimated 3 cubic kilometers of  lava is erupted. The magma and lava create the edges of new oceanic plates and supply heat and chemicals to some of the Earth’s most unusual and rare ecosystems.

 If an estimate of 4,000 volcanoes per million square kilometers on the floor of the Pacific Ocean is extrapolated for all the oceans then there are more than a million submarine (underwater) volcanoes. According to Geologists, as many as 75,000 of these volcanoes rise over half a mile (1 kilometer) above the ocean floor. 

Volcanic activities on the lithosphere of the Earth: There are around 550 active volcanoes of the world along with about 40,000 hot water springs and global heat flux emanating from the entire crust of the earth is contributing in global warming. Geothermal energy is plentiful. Temperatures increase below the Earth’s surface at a rate of about 30 °C per km in the first 10 km (roughly 90 °F per mile in the first 6 miles) below the surface. This internal heat of the Earth is an immense store of energy. In the upper 10 km of rock beneath the continent of United States, it amounts to 3.3 × 1025 joules, or about 6,000 times the energy contained in the world’s oil reserves. The natural escape of the Earth’s heat through its surface averages only 0.06 watt per square metre (0.006 watt per square foot).

Source of the solar energy:

The sun is the only source of solar energy on our earth. The surface of the Earth receives solar energy at the rate of approximately 1,000 watts per square metre. The sun is perpendicular to the earth at sea level on a clear day. As per another estimate the Earth receives 174 petawatts (PW) of incoming solar radiation (insolation) at the upper atmosphere. Approximately 30% is reflected back to space while the rest 70% i.e. 122 petawatts is absorbed by clouds, oceans and land masses.


Causes of increase in global warming: IPCCC’s Projected Climate Model 

Thus there is a basic flaw in the modern scientific view of the global warming as compared to the Vedic view. Modern scientists think that the sun is solely responsible for the GW. Whereas GW is contributed both by the heat of earth and sun.  

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), found out in 2007, that global surface temperature of the earth increased by 0.74 ± 0.18 °C (1.33 ± 0.32 °F) during the 20th century. The temperature increases since the middle of the 20th century was attributed to increasing concentrations of green house gases. 80% of GW is attributed to CO2 and 20% to CFC emissions, etc., known as green house gases (GHG). Coal based power plants are indicated as the top contributor of GHGs, followed by the burning of fossil fuel in transport and deforestation.

The studies of IPCC also found that between 1970 to 2004, the emission of GHGs increased by 70%. So, a climate model was projected by IPCC based upon the increase in emission of of GHGs. Accordingly, if the current trend of emission of GHGs continue, the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 1.1 to 6.4 °C (2.0 to 11.5 °F) during the 21st century. Meteorologists predicts world temperature will rise between 2 and 4 degree C by 2030, unless we cut the amount of GHGs we produce.  As per report of IPCC,  if warming reaches 2 degrees Celsius, more than 70 percent of Earth’s coastlines will see sea-level rise greater than 0.66 feet (0.2 meters), resulting in increased coastal flooding, beach erosion, salinization of water supplies and other impacts on humans and ecological systems. Had the above sensational statements been true, by 2020 the coastal cities of Bombay, Chennai and Calcultta would have inundated, but this did not happen and proved the IPCC postulations to be wrong. 

In fact, there is a basic flaw, as pointed above, in IPCC’s projected model of climate which counts the sun alone contributing to the global warming. Meteorologists commit further mistake when they indulge in GW predictions following IPCC projected model based upon this fundamental mistake. Had the modern scientists followed the Vedic model of climate holding the geothermal heat and insolation from sun equally responsible for GW, they would have been able to predict the global warming more precisely than before without creating panic by their sensational statements.              

The Vedic Climate Model 

In the Vedic climate model, both geothermal energy and solar energy are contributors to the phenomenon of global warming. So, when the global warming is calculated or predicted, alongwith the increase in the emission of GHGs, the increase in installations of solar panels, geothermal power plants and wind mills during the concerned period shall have to be taken also into consideration. As the solar panels would reduce the warming caused by solar insolations; geothermal power plants would reduce the GW caused by geothermal heat and and wind mills reduce warming caused by both the solar insolations and as geothermal heat, thus contribute to global cooling. 

The data shows that in 2018 wind power capacity grew 9.6% to 591 gigawatts (GW), ealier in 2015 its capacity was 432 GW. If this trend of the growth of wind capacity continues, it will be 792.1 GW by the end of 2020 and 4,042 GW by end of 2050. Similarly we are informed that that geothermal power generation capacity is increasing at an annual growth rate of around 4.7%. and solar power generation capacity is increasing at the annual growth rate of 40-50%. So, the increase in the solar, geothermal and wind mill power generation capacities are reducing the global warming in proportionate to their growth. 

IPCC’s predictions failed because its projected model of climate had no space for the global cooling contributed by growing wind mills, solar and geothermal power plants to harness the solar and geothermal energies. According to the Vedic model of climate, global warming can be estimated not only on the basis of increase in emission of GHGs, but also counting global cooling caused by the growing number of solar and geothermal power plants as well as wind mills on the various parts of the earth.  

Are GHGs the real cause of increase in global warming? 

Now we may use certain data available to us to verify IPCC’s hypothesis that green house gases are contributing to the global warming. 

To verify this, we have taken certain data of the Sea Surface Temperature, as the global warming induced global climate change (GCC) also leaves its signatures on Sea Surface Temperature (SST). Due to GW, SST also rises. Had the human activities i.e. use of GHG been the sole cause of GW, there would have been abnormalities in SST proportionate to the human activities in the respective oceanic regions. But this is not found exactly to be so. 

Here we would have a glimpse of the following picture of the warm water pool located in the West Pacific Ocean near Indonesia and Philippines group of Islands, we are surprised to see the contribution of geothermal energy in creation of this warm water pool. At same latitude the sea surface temperature varies like 24 (+50 C), 22 (+50 C), 20 (+50C), on account of variation in distance from the volcanoes of Indonesia and Philippines group of Islands.

Thus we can safely say that the the geothermal energy is also a factor that contributes to the global warming. The above data shows that the contribution of 550 active volcanoes of the world along with about 40,000 hot water springs and global heat flux emanating from the entire crust of the earth and volcanic activities under sea water is contributing its share to the total 150C temperature of the earth in global warming. This supports the Vedic model of climate, however, the IPCC projected model of climate, as pointed out above, has never taken the geothermal energy in consideration for its contribution to the global warming. Human activites or green house gases are contributing maximum to the pollution and to some extant to the global warming.   

Geothermal energy is the cause of cyclones, earthquackes:

A major area in the basin of Pacific Ocean is known as the Ring of Fire (also known as the Rim of Fire or the Circum-Pacific belt), because it has 452 volcanoes (more than 75% of the world’s active and dormant volcanoes). Due to the excess of geothermal activity, this region experiences about 90% of the world’s earthquakes and about 81% of the world’s largest earthquakes. The Northeastern Pacific is the second most active basin and has the highest number of storms per unit area. The Northwest Pacific Ocean is the most active basin on the planet, accounting for one-third of all tropical cyclone activity. Annually, an average of 25.7 tropical cyclones in the basin acquire tropical storm strength or greater.

Solution to the challenge of GW  

On the whole the issue of global warming is creating horror for the existence of life on the earth. As such immediate check or reduction of global warming is must for the survival of entire humankind on the globe. IPCC projected model of climate, predictions of which have proved a hoax, has also suggested many actions to check it. The modern solution of the GW reflects in the Kyoto Protocol which is aimed at stabilizing greenhouse gas concentration to prevent a “dangerous anthropogenic interference”. As of November 2009, 187 states had signed and ratified the protocol. Proposed responses to global warming include mitigation to reduce emissions, adaptation to the effects of global warming, and geo-engineering to remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere.

However, the real solution to this global challenge seems to be with with the Vedic model of climate framed by the the Vedic seers in the days of yore.  As such there is a need to explore more and more actions and means to observe a total control over the increasing warming in the light of Vedic model. 

Accordidngly there is a need to harnessing the geothermal and solar energy more and more for the benefit of humanity. All the mantras quoted above substantiate this view. Following mantras of Atharvaveda is also noteworthy in this regard.

तानि कल्पद् ब्रह्मचारी सलिलस्य पृष्ठे तपोअतिष्ठत् तप्यमान समुद्रे।

स स्नातः बभ्रु पिंगलः पृथिव्यां बहु रोचते॥ अथर्ववेद, 1.5.26

tāni kalpad brahmachārī salilasya pṛṣṭhe tapo∙atiṣṭhat tapyamāna samudre,

sa snātaḥ babhru piṁgalaḥ pṛthivyāṁ bahu rochate.

[Meaning] (ब्रह्मचारी) Vedic scholar (तानि कल्पत् अतिष्ठत्) for harnessing geothermal energy surveys (तपः तप्यमानः समुद्रे)the hottest sea spreading centres as well as (सलिलस्य पृष्ठे) the surface of oceans. (स्नातः) Having graduated (बभ्रुः) with robust physique and (पिंगलः) magmatic complexion, (सः) he has become (बहु) highly (रोचते) glorified on (पृथिव्याम्) the planet.

Unfortunately, geothermal energy is not getting the same level of attention as solar energy, and it remains heavily underutilized. If the world were able to tap just a small portion of the earth’s heat, we could provide everyone with clean and safe energy for centuries and eradicate the fear of earthquakes, and cyclones. Current estimates of global potential for geothermal energy range from 35 gigawatts (GW) to 2,000 GW. However, simple technological improvements could greatly increase these projections.

Central America, in particular, is progressing quickly as several countries begin to develop previously untouched geothermal resources. Central America is located within the Pacific Ring of Fire, a volcanically active region that has excellent potential for geothermal electricity. Estimates for the geothermal potential of the region are as high as 11000 megawatts (MW). However, the region is harnessing only 506 MW of this energy and is still heavily dependent on expensive imported fossil fuels.

El Salvador, known as the ‘land of volcanoes’, is the largest producer of geothermal electricity in the region with 204 MW of production. With approximately 24 percent of its total electricity need is coming from geothermal resources, El Salvador is a world leader in the development of geothermal power. Moreover, the country received a US $ 2 million grant form the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) in May to establish a geothermal training center for Latin America and the Caribbean. As part of this initiative, the international training center will offer technical courses in geothermal energy development at la Universidad de El Salvador.

India needs to do 

India has lot of potential of geothermal energy in addition to solar energy. 135 kilometres to the northeast of Port Blair, Barren Island is situated at the intersection of the seismically active Indian and Burmese plates and is 1.8 million years old and is home to the only active volcano in the Indian subcontinent. On this Island volcano eruptions take place at frequent intervals.

Indian Govt. has no provision of electricity in Andaman Nicobar Islands. We are meeting electricity requirements in the Islands with the help of generators running on fossil fuels which are very costly. Indian Govt. can produce electricity from this Barren Island volcano and installing wind mills around the coastal areas of Islands, Odisha, Andhrapradesh and Tamilnadu. It will help us serve two purposes 1. We shall be able to meet with the requirements of electricity of in these areas. 2. This will also help reduce the Bay of Bengal Sea Surface Temperature which will ultimately check the growth of earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanism, devastating cyclones and hurricanes in the Andaman Nicobar Islands, coastal areas of Odisha, Andhrapradesh and Tamilnadu. In addition, India has 350 hot water springs. They can also be exploited for electricity generation. This will also help meet the requirement of electricty in those areas and help reduce the global warming.  


As discused above geothermal energy also contribute to some extent in the global surface temperature, where as the current global warming is only .8 degree C. In case we succeed in installing geothermal power plants on all of the active volcanoes of the world the reduction in gobal temperature to the tune of at least 10 C can be achieved in the coming 5 years. Surprisingly, the so-called problem of global warming can be turned to global cooling (ice age). ‘The inconvenient truth’ can be converted into ‘the convenient truth’. Fortunately in the coming days the number of ever increasing wind-mills, solar panels and the substitution of fossil fuel run automobiles with electrical vehicles will also add to the campaign of global cooling. The International Commision of Atmospheric Electricty are also making frentic efforts to provide free and clean electricity to the entire population of the planet. Needless to say the maximum chunk of Vedic mantras (about 3000) are dedicated to this holy cause under the subject of Indra. Inspite of great hue and cry raised by IPCC reports the problem of global warming is not out of our control. We still can solve it, if we dare to act. Not only for our brothers and sisters in India, the whole world will benefit.            



  1. The Atharvaveda, Edited and Translated in English Devi Chand, Munshi Ram  

Manoharlal, Delhi, 1980 

  1. The Ṛgveda Saṅhitā, Edited by Ravi Prakash Arya, Parimal Publications, Delhi,  2002  
  2. IPCC’s report of 2007
  3. धरती को जल प्रलय से बचाने का सुगम एवं सही उपाय’, सूर्यप्रकाश कपूर द्वारा ‘विश्व की प्रगति में विज्ञान तथा प्रौद्योगिकी का योगदान‘ विषय पर रक्षा अनुसंधान एवं विकास संगठन, रक्षा मन्त्रालय मेटकाफ हाउस, दिल्ली द्वारा आयेजित कान्फ्रेस में पठित एवं ‘समकालील वैज्ञानिक अनुसंधान’ के पेज न0 2002-206 पर प्रकाशित, 2013 
  4. Website of International commission on Atmospheric Electricty
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