Different domains of nature

Abstract

Modern science makes domain-specific assumptions for modeling the atomic structure. Hence the domain-based knowledge of atom fails to provide a comprehensive universal understanding of nature. The present atomic model unknowingly ignored the finer domain constituents of atom and also ignored the boundary condition of atom to account for the external linkage of atom with its background.

  The new mass-space structure of systems in any domain has similarity with the mass-space structure of systems in other domains due to the basic universal mass-space interactions (Reference). Any system in any domain has a name, form and form-based properties even though all systems constitute the same basic mass and space of the universe. The systems in any domain possesses a system-based property due to the influences (properties) of its constituents in finer domain and the said system in turn influences the system of higher up domain being a constituent of that domain. Thus the universe is an integrated whole of its constituents in different domains. Modern science understands atomic system in isolation i.e. ignoring the interaction links at system boundary (a boundary condition in free body consideration). The boundary condition of a system represents the attachment link with its background. Further it ignores the atomic constituents in finer domains.

Introduction

Our first experience of centrally organized structure of matter came from the study of solar system (sun-planet system and planet-satellite system). Subsequently atoms and galaxies were found to have centrally organized structures. The Solar system is much too larger than the atomic system and again the galactic system is much too larger than the solar system. The structural atoms become structure-less point particles in the map of solar system. Likewise stars also become structure less point particles in the map of galaxy. Thus, it becomes necessary to use different scale units for atoms, stellar systems and galactic systems for study of respective systems. For example, we use angstrom (Å) for the measure of atomic dimension, astronomical unit (AU) for dimension of solar system (1 AU=Earth-Sun distance) and light years for dimension of galaxies. A light-year is the distance that light travels in a vacuum in one Julian year (365.25 days). The value of angstrom in AU scale becomes zero and the value of AU in light year scale is also zero. Likewise, we evaluate masses of celestial bodies in solar mass units (SMU) and the masses of atoms and molecules in atomic mass units (AMU). The atomic mass in AMU becomes zero in SMU. We consider molecules, atoms and subatomic particles as particles of micro domain and celestial bodies as bodies of macro domain. We know the structure and features of galaxies but not classified them as systems of macro-macro-domain. Further, we are unaware of the existence of finer domain (say micro-micro-domain) one domain below micro domain. This paper discusses the existence of matter in less known domains of nature and proposes a method for characterizing the domains. The new characterization of domains identifies the existence of finer domain below micro domain and above macro domain. The inter domain similarity of structure and feature helps to rectify our defective concept of the reality of nature. 

Discussion

When the physical parameters of matter such as mass, dimension etc. becomes zero in macro celestial body scale, then the domain of such matters is classified as micro domain. Conversely, when the parameters of matter become infinity in micro domain scale units then it is classified as matter of macro domain. Following this classification, the galaxies having infinity mass & infinity dimension in solar system scale may be classified as matters of macro-macro domain and the light particles having zero mass and zero dimensions in micro domain scale units may be classified as matters of micro-micro domain. The author, however, prefers a different classification of domains from the structural features of centrally organized systems.

A new classification of domains of matter from structural features

Examining the solar system, we find, the nucleus and orbital bodies are bodies of macro domain. The space matter particles in extra-nuclear space structure (atmosphere) of a macro celestial body system are particles of micro domain which is one domain lower than the domain size of the nucleus and the orbital bodies. The radiation particles (light particles) radiated from the sun, the nucleus of solar system, are particles of micro-micro domain which is two domains down from the domain size of the nucleus and orbital celestial bodies. The structural features of centrally organized systems in all domains of nature may be generalized in respect of the domain size of nucleus, orbital body, space matter particles and the radiation particles. According to this new generalization the orbital bodies and the nucleus belongs to same domain; space matter particles of extra-nuclear space structure are one domain down the domain size of nucleus and the radiation particles of nucleus are two domains down the domain size of the nucleus (Fig.2). Following this general characterization, the domain sizes of different constituents of atomic system, solar system and galactic system are presented in Table 1 and schematically shown in Figs. 2a, 2b and 2c respectively.


Table-1

Domains of different centrally organized systems and their constituents


Systems of different domains

Nucleus

Orbital body/particle

Space matter particles

Radiation particles

——

——

——

——

——

Galaxy

(Macro-macro system) 

Blackhole at centre of galaxy

(macro-macro domain)

Orbital blackhole

(Macro-macro domain)

Stellar bodies

(Macro domain)

Mega photons, (ions and electrons)

(Micro domain)

Solar system

(Macro system)

 

Sun

(Macro domain)

Planets

(Macro domain)

Atoms and molecules

(Micro domain)

Photons

(Micro-micro domain)

Atoms

(Micro system)

Nucleus of atom

(Micro domain)

Electrons

(Micro domain)

Photons

(Micro –micro domain)

Micro photons

(Micro-micro-micro domain)

Photons

(Micro-micro 

system)

Nucleus of  photon

 (Micro –micro domain)

Photons

(Micro –micro domain)

Micro photons

(Micro-micro-micro domain)

Micro-micro photons

(Micro-micro-micro-micro domain)

——

——

——

——

——

If uniformity prevails in nature the atomic system (micro particle system) has to be similar with solar system. The nucleus with orbital electrons would be classified as micro particles, the unknown space matter particles present in extra-nuclear space structure of atom would be particles of micro-micro domain (light particles/photons) and the unknown continuous radiation particles from atomic nucleus would be classified under micro-micro-micro particles (micro photons). Lack of insight to radiation of micro-photons from atomic nucleus has given us the impression that atomic nuclei do not radiate energy. The light particles have mass in micro-micro domain scale, and they carry non-electric charge, thus light particles have placement in atomic structure as well as in inter-atomic space.


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