INSTITUTE OF PHILOSOPHY OF NATURE

**Abstract**

We make use of our already gained knowledge for further exploration of nature. However, we could not understand nature completely, although the growth of our knowledge is exponential in character. It is as if some mistakes at basic level were integrated in our present understanding that stands on the way of further exploration of nature. This paper suggests new interpretation of mass and space and new universal interactions in mass and space which has scope to reveal the cause of fundamental forces of nature.

**Introduction**

One gets delighted by looking at the advances made in different fields of science and technology such as computer science, space science, nuclear science, information technology etc. This gives us a feeling as if we have almost understood nature. Such a feeling comes to our mind because we do not realize how much more aspects of nature remain unexplored. Since we are not aware of many aspects of nature, the unexplored list cannot be prepared. Thus we have a clear picture of how much science understands nature but unclear about how much more remains to be explored. As of today, modern science attempts to explore how things happen in nature but fails many times to understand why things happen in the way they are happening. We do not understand why nature has duality, why gravity acts only for group of molecules in gaseous state of matter and not to individual molecules for settling down onto the surface of the celestial body? What is the basis of quantum assumptions? Whether the light particles have tiny rest mass below detection level? If independent existence of charge without mass is not seen in nature then what is the bearing of charge with mass? Whether light particles and celestial bodies carry some forms of non-electric charge? Why velocity of light is constant in vacuum? Whether consistency and uniformity of nature exists in all domains of nature and not in micro domain? Why Mercury and Venus do not have satellites? Why, not a single satellite has an orbital body? Why different sciences engaged in studying different aspects of nature fails to maintain harmony among them? Whether the atomic system and the solar system have hidden similarity? One may wonder whether the limitations are caused due to defective understanding of the basic entities of nature (mass, space, charge, time etc.)! The author made a humble attempt to modify the basic concepts of modern science to develop harmony among all sciences and to develop a comprehensive unified understanding of nature. The proposed new concept of basic entities helps promote the new unified science that provides answers to above questions. The present article analyses the new understanding of matter and space and the new mass-space interactions. The author has borrowed the concept of matter and space from Vedic science for universal understanding of natural phenomena and the basic norm of nature. A perfect understanding of the basic constituent of universe is absolutely necessary to understand all aspects of nature. The universe and all its form-based constituents are composed of formless mass and formless space entities. Thus one can develop a universal science dealing with mass & space and their interactions which is uniformly applicable to all domains of nature. The new concept of mass and space provides a better understanding of nature. It explains the common cause of gravity (both Newtonian gravity and Einstein’s space time gravity) and many phenomena of nature mentioned above.

**Basic constituents of the universe**

The Vedic concept of **space as a physical constituent **of the universe is of great value in augmenting modern science. According to Vedic science the universe is constituted of **Panchamohabhuta** (** Prithvi, Jal, Vayu, Agni and Akash**). These constituents may be interpreted as solid, liquid, gas, plasma and space. In modern science, solid, liquid, gas and plasma corresponds to different states of matter. Thus, the basic constituents of the universe are reduced to matter and space only,

**both being physica**l. According to Ayurveda all substances are mixture of 5 basic elements (

**panchamohabhuta**), but substances have one major element and they are classified according to the major element present in it. This implies, each element of Panchamohabhuta is a mixture of the five elements where it contains four other elements in minor fraction.

Any physical entity has existence and has shape, size, location, density, state property and a name. Therefore, geometry is equally applicable to matter as well as space. But geometry can represent neither matter nor space fully. Matter can have different matter density (matter content per unit volume). Similarly** physical-space also has different space density (space content per unit volume). **This implies that a given volume can have different extent of space content. This aspect of space is overlooked in modern science. The compressibility of space has greater scope in explaining different phenomena of nature. The non-geometrical parameters of space are introduced to geometry to understand laws of nature. This makes deviation from reality of nature and distortion in 3D geometry as well as human perception. The content of matter is mass therefore the matter density is expressed as mass per unit volume. But the content of space is space itself thus the space density means the space content per unit volume. **In view of the above, the universe comprises mass and space only as the most basic physical entities of nature**.

With our prevailing mind-set of relational space, the space density is unthinkable. The concept of ether (a physical fluid) was introduced to make space physical to justify the feasibility of propagation of light wave. It was thought that space is filled by ether of uniform density. The ether concept had serious problem in quantitative analysis of the speed of light waves and was rejected. The proposers of ether could have thought that different space pockets can have different ether density (ether content per unit volume of space) like the variation of mass density in matter. This author likes the Vedic concept of space (space itself is physical) and space is compressible. This author feels, reintroducing the term ‘ether’ for content of space may lead to more confusion. When space itself is physical, the ether concept becomes redundant. Further, there is no need of imagining hypothetical objects and events in space to make it physical.

**Different concepts of physical space**

Disagreement continued among philosophers/scientists on the concept of space as to whether-

- Space itself a physical entity, (Vedic Science)
- A relationship between physical entities (matter), (Leibniz)
- A part of a conceptual framework, (Kant) (mathematical space/space-time relativity).

**Casual connection in mathematical space**

Matter is a spherical wave structure where the wave center, “particle’ is in continual two-way communication with all other matter in the observable universe due to its spherical in & out waves. Thus, one substance (and its wave motion) is the ultimate foundation for the casual connection of both the physical reality.

What is physical in matter wave? Waves cannot form in space unless the space itself is physical. How uncomfortable it is to accept ‘light waves do not require medium’, even though it yields result. Mathematical space was advanced in 1854. Process of generalizing went in different directions such as:

- Vector Space,
- Hilbert Space,
- Riemannian space (Function Space),
- Topological space

**Different concepts of physical space**

1) A sea of gravitons (which we hope to observe in Large Hadron Collider (LHC) (quantum theory takes this view)

2) An entity, which lives in dimensions, we cannot (yet) observe. (String theory takes this view)

3) We do not know the best description, but we have the mathematical model for it-a pseudo Riemannian 4-D manifold with metric (General Relativity takes this View)

4) A sea of Higg’s Boson throughout the space. (Quantum theory takes this view)

5) A fluid, the physics of which is not understood yet (**New concept of compressible space proposed by this author**)

**New concept of space proposed by this author**

- Space itself is physical and it can have
**different space densities**.

- Space also contains
**space matter particles**in finer domain. - The space pockets can be at
**rest or in motion**in relation to matter. - Again, space can have directional
**space density gradient** - The space matter particles can have different
**number densities**as well as**number density gradients**.

**The above parameters of physical space if not understood properly then we would fail to understand the influence of space parameters in the dynamics of matter in space.**

Relational property of space is only one aspect of physical space. Therefore, 3D geometrical characterization of a physical space pocket is only partial. Attempting to understand all aspects of space by introducing more coordinates in 3D geometry such as **clubbing time with space fouls with mental perception of geometry and the dynamics because time is a non-geometrical parameter. Even though time varies spatially, it can be considered as a separate parameter for solution of dynamics of matter in space. Mathematical solution of a dynamics if feasible by fusing space and time then it (mathematical solution) is also feasiable without fusing the space and time. Then why distort geometry and human perception?**

**Mass-space structure of matter and physical space**

**Interpretation of Vedic science and modern science reveals; matter at any stage is a mass-space integral system and any space pocket, contains space matter particles in finer domain and hence space also is a space-mass integral system.** Thus, the universe and all its constituents (galaxy, stars, planets, satellites, molecules, atoms, subatomic particles etc.) having name, form and form-based properties are basically constituted of formless mass and formless space. The universe is a mass-space continuum. Thus a basic mass-space interaction is inevitable [1].

**Universal mass-space interaction**

Objects in different domains have system-based interaction norms (laws) but all these system-based local interactions are caused due to the basic universal mass-space interactions. Hence the new concepts of matter & space and the new mass-space interactions lead towards a comprehensive unified understanding of nature. The basic mass-space interaction being universal is common to solar system in macro domain and atomic system in micro domain. Therefore, the two systems should exhibit structural and functional similarity. This author has unraveled the hidden similarity between structure of solar system and the structure of atomic system. Further the cause-to-effect analogy being universal has been made valid in the new improved atomic model. Thus, the instinct of nature (laws of nature) is consistent and invariant irrespective of domains.

**Nature of mass-space interaction**

The universe is always dynamic. Mass and space are the only two basic physical constituents of the universe. Thus, the mass-space interaction is the basic cause of the fundamental force interactions. Hence dynamics of systems in different domains can be unified.

The possible mass-space interactions are –

**Mass-space interaction**

**Mass-mass interaction**

**Space-space interaction**

The nature of interaction (attraction or repulsion) can be decided from observation to different events of the universe. We observe every dense-mass (nuclei of atomic system, solar system, galactic system etc.) has a space structure surrounding it. **This implies the attraction of mass to space and vice-versa**.

We notice two dense mass of atomic nuclei repel one another which shows mass repels mass. In the new concept, charge in matter can be interpreted as the non equilibrium state of mass space structure. If mass attracts mass then all mass of the universe would collapse to a point. Thus the present mass-mass attraction is not correct. This author has worked out the exact equation of Newtonian mass attraction gravity by following the new mass-space interactions [2]. Again according to Einstein, mass does not attract mass. Gravity is property of space-time curvature. He further said that the space surrounding any dense mass is curved. How can this happen without the mass-space interaction? **The mass-space attraction is the common cause of Newtonian gravity as well as Einstein’s space-time gravity. **The space structure surrounding any dense mass does not collapse on to the surface. Thus it becomes obvious that **space-space repulsion prevents the collapse of the space by countering the mass-space attraction**.

The charge interaction being a function of mass-space interactions in matters in non-equilibrium state of mass-space association, thus the mass-space interactions can be interpreted as the cause of fundamental forces of nature. Hence the 4-fundamental forces of nature remain unified at the level of their common cause. The fundamental forces responds to inverse square law in centrally organized systems, but different forces have their different range of interaction. There is no reason why the structure and features of systems in different domains be different for a unified force?

**Conclusion**

At any instant of time the known scientific knowledge is used as a tool for further exploration of nature. Thus the power of exploring nature increases exponentially with time and by now we would have understood different less known aspects of nature. But this did not happen. It is as if the tool (already acquired scientific knowledge) used in exploring nature is defective. Any defective understanding of nature would stand on the way of further exploration on reality of nature. Once the defective understandings of basic concepts are rectified, the access to further understanding of nature opens up. On the other hand further scientific exploration of nature with the defective basic concept does not allow understanding the secrets of nature. Thus it is necessary to break away the limiting stagnation of growth of science by perceiving the reality of nature. The new concept of mass and space as the only constituents of universe and the new interactions of mass and space appear to have a great promise towards a comprehensive understanding of nature.

Reference

- Mass-space Structure of centrally organized systems, of this issue.
- Unpublished works of this author, likely to be published in the next issue.